The image under is a schematic stream diagram of a typical oil refinery depicting various unit processes and the stream of intermediate merchandise between the inlet crude oil feedstock and the ultimate products. The diagram depicts only one of many a whole lot of various configurations. It doesn’t include any of the standard amenities providing utilities reminiscent of steam, cooling water, and electric power in addition to storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate products and finish merchandise.
The picture under is a schematic block circulate diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant. It exhibits numerous unit processes converting uncooked pure fuel into gas pipelined to end customers.
The block flow diagram additionally exhibits how processing of the uncooked pure gas yields byproduct sulfur, byproduct ethane, and pure fuel liquids (NGL) propane, butanes and natural gasoline (denoted as pentanes +).
Sugarcane is historically refined into sugar in two stages. In the first stage, uncooked sugar is produced by the milling of freshly harvested sugarcane. In a sugar mill, sugarcane is washed, chopped, and shredded by revolving knives. The shredded cane is blended with water and crushed. The juices (containing 10-15 % sucrose) are collected and combined with lime to adjust pH to 7, to stop decay into glucose and fructose and precipitate impurities. The lime and other suspended solids are settled out, and the clarified juice is concentrated in a a number of-effect evaporator to make a syrup with about 60 weight percent sucrose. The syrup is further concentrated below vacuum until it becomes supersaturated, after which seeded with crystalline sugar. Upon cooling, sugar crystallizes out of the syrup. Centrifuginging then separates the sugar from the remaining liquid (molasses). Raw sugar has a yellow to brown shade. To supply a white sugar, sulfur dioxide is bubbled through the cane juice before evaporation so as to bleach colour-forming impurities into colourless ones. Sugar bleached white by this means known as mill white, plantation white, and crystal sugar. It is the type of sugar most frequently consumed within the sugarcane-producing international locations.
The second stage is usually executed in heavy sugar-consuming areas resembling North America, Europe, and Japan. Within the second stage, white sugar is produced that’s greater than 99 percent pure sucrose. In such refineries, uncooked sugar is further purified. It is first combined with heavy syrup and centrifuged to clean away the outer coating of the uncooked sugar crystals, which is much less pure than the crystal interior. The remaining sugar is then dissolved to make a syrup (about 70 percent by weight solids), which is clarified by the addition of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide that combine to precipitate calcium phosphate. The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and absorb others, after which float to the highest of the tank, where they are skimmed off.
After any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized by filtration via a mattress of activated carbon. The purified syrup is then concentrated to supersaturation and repeatedly crystallized below vacuum to supply white refined sugar. As in a sugar mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the molasses by centrifuging. To produce granulated sugar, through which the individual sugar grains don’t clump collectively, sugar have to be dried. Drying is accomplished first by drying the sugar in a scorching rotary dryer, after which by blowing cool air via it for a number of days.
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