Mitigation of Crude Oil Refinery Heat Exchanger Fouling Through Retrofits Based on Thermo-Hydraulic Fouling Models

Crude oil fouling in refinery preheat exchangers is a chronic operating problem that compromises energy recovery in these systems. Progress is hindered by the lack of quantitative knowledge of the dynamic effects of fouling on exchanger heat transfer and pressure drop. The concept of a thermal ‘fouling threshold’, first introduced by Ebert and Panchal, is revisited [...]