The image below is a schematic flow diagram of a typical petroleum refinery that depicts the various refining processes and the flow of intermediate product streams that occurs between the inlet crude oil feedstock and the final end-products.

The diagram depicts only one of the literally hundreds of different oil refinery configurations. The diagram also does not include any of the usual refinery facilities providing utilities such as steam, cooling water, and electric power as well as storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate products and end products.

A schematic flow diagram of a typical petroleum refinery.

Refining end-products

The primary end-products produced in petroleum refining may be grouped into four categories: light distillates, middle distillates, heavy distillates and others.

Light distillates

  • Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
  • Gasoline (petrol).
  • Heavy Naphtha.

Middle distillates

  • Kerosene
  • Automotive and rail-road diesel fuels
  • Residential heating fuel
  • Other light fuel oils

Heavy distillates

  • Heavy fuel oils
  • Wax
  • Lubricating oils
  • Asphalt


  • Coke (similar to coal)