The refining course of begins with crude oil. Crude oil is unrefined liquid petroleum, which ranges in coloration from yellow to black, and may have a paraffin, asphalt or blended base. Crude oil is composed of 1000’s of various chemical compounds referred to as hydrocarbons, all with different boiling points. For example, a typical crude oil may start to boil at 104 F to supply petroleum gasoline used for heating and making plastics, and end boiling at better than 1112 F to produce residuals comparable to petroleum coke, asphalt and tar.
Crude oil is generally described as candy or bitter in line with its sulfur content material, and heavy or light in accordance with its API Gravity. The API Gravity index is a relative measure of weight-the lower the number, the heavier the material; the higher the number, the lighter the material. While there are no exacting definitions for a majority of these crudes, a normal rule of thumb is:
Refining Course of Definitions
Coker Unit: processes vacuum resid, which is heated to over 900 F and put into the coke drums, the place it undergoes thermal cracking as the oil decomposes beneath the excessive heat. Merchandise include butane and lighter materials, naphtha for Reforming, turbine and diesel fuel, fuel oil for Cat Cracking, and gasoline grade petroleum coke.