Texaco is among the world’s largest oil companies, with exploratory, manufacturing, and advertising operations throughout the globe. Its main petroleum-based mostly merchandise embody automotive gasoline and oils, in addition to aviation and heating fuels. Texaco expanded with the expansion of the U.S. automobile trade in the early 20th century and shortly developed international manufacturing and advertising interests. By the 1960s it had established the biggest gross sales network of any U.S. oil company, with operations concentrated in refining and advertising and marketing. The oil disaster of the 1970s lower off a lot of its worldwide sources of crude oil and left it with limited reserves. Texaco was poised for recovery in 1984 when it entered right into a court docket battle with Pennzoil Firm over the acquisition of Getty Oil. Since settling with Pennzoil in 1988, Texaco has pursued an nearly constant restructuring effort in an try to recapture its former profitability and prominence in the oil business.
Texaco was founded during the early increase years of the Texas oil business. In 1901 a gusher at the Spindletop oil discipline despatched tons of of entrepreneurs into Beaumont, Texas. Amongst them was Joseph S. “Buckskin Joe” Cullinan, an oilman who had begun his profession working for Commonplace Oil Firm in Pennsylvania. The Spindletop wells led to the rapid institution of over 200 oil firms, pumping out as much as 100,000 barrels a day. Cullinan noticed a chance in purchasing that crude for resale to refineries. With the assistance of latest York investment manager Arnold Schlaet, he formed The Texas Gasoline Firm with an preliminary inventory of $50,000. Cullinan and Schlaet started soliciting additional investments in New York and Chicago. After raising $3 million, they reorganized their venture because the Texas Firm.
Cullinan instantly began constructing a pipeline between Spindletop and the gulf coast of Texas. He constructed a refinery at the Texas coastal metropolis of Port Arthur, and from there the company shipped its oil to Louisiana sugar planters, who used it to heat their boilers. Within the fall of 1902, salt water leaked into the Spindletop wells and ruined many of the businesses based there. The Texas Company survived with a well timed discovery of oil at Bitter Lake, 20 miles northwest of Spindletop. Different strikes soon followed in Oklahoma and Louisiana.
With Cullinan’s oil experience and the financing of his New York backers, The Texas Firm soon turned one of the nation’s most prominent oil companies. Cullinan continued to drill wells in the southwest area, constructing extra pipelines to connect them with Port Arthur. By 1908 the corporate was promoting to all but 5 western states, and by 1913 its assets were value $60 million. The nickname Texaco came from the cable address of the company’s New York offices. Texaco gained reputation as a product identify, and in 1906 the company registered it as a trademark. The nicely-known brand first appeared in 1909 as a pink star with a inexperienced “T” in the middle. The company formally modified its name to Texaco Inc. in 1959.
On the time of Texaco’s founding, oil was used primarily for lighting and as gas for factories and locomotives. Texaco met this demand with its first client product, Familylite Illuminating Oil, introduced in 1907. After 1910, nonetheless, the automobile revolutionized the oil trade. Demand for gasoline, formerly considered a waste by-product of kerosene, expanded rapidly. Texaco adopted this trend, and by 1914 its gasoline manufacturing surpassed that of kerosene. The corporate went from distributing gasoline in barrels to underground tanks to curbside pumps, and in 1911 it opened its first filling station in Brooklyn, New York. By 1916, 57 such stations had been in operation throughout the nation. Powered by the expansion of the automobile trade and the high demand for petroleum created by WWI, Texaco quadrupled its assets between 1914 and 1920.
After WWI, Texaco continued to focus on its automotive gasoline and oil production, introducing new merchandise and expanding its nationwide sales network. In 1920 two researchers at its Port Arthur refinery developed the oil industry’s first steady thermal cracking process for making gasoline. Named after its founders, the Holmes-Manley process enormously elevated the pace of the refining process as well as the amount of gasoline that could be refined from a barrel of crude. Texaco marketed this gasoline by means of its retail network, pushing into the Rocky Mountain area between 1920 and 1926, and into West Coast markets with the acquisition of California Petroleum Company in 1928.
Products launched through the 1920s included the corporate’s first premium gasoline, in addition to Texaco Aviation Gasoline and automobile motor oils. To market the lighter oils it refined from Texas crude, Texaco launched its first nationwide advertising marketing campaign. The slogan “Clean, Clear, Golden” appeared at Texaco’s filling stations, which displayed its motor oils in glass bottles. By 1928 Texaco owned or leased greater than four,000 stations in all 48 states.
The company’s growth was additionally reflected in its corporate construction. Finding Texas’s company legal guidelines too restrictive for doing enterprise on such a big scale, Texaco determined to maneuver its legal house. In 1926 it formed The Texas Company in Delaware, which then bought out the inventory of The Texas Company and reorganized it as a subsidiary referred to as The Texas Company of Delaware. The corporate additionally moved its headquarters from Houston to New York. The Texas Company acted as a holding firm for The Texas Company of Delaware and The Texas Firm of California–previously The California Petroleum Firm–until 1941, when it merged with each and formed a single firm identified as the Texas Firm.
The Texas Company’s earnings reached an all-time high in 1929, but then dropped precipitously after the stock market crash. Overproduction, financial recession, and low costs plagued the oil business in the early thirties. The corporate embarked on a technique of introducing new merchandise to stimulate demand. Texaco Fire Chief Gasoline was launched in 1932, and the corporate marketed it by sponsoring a nationwide Ed Wynn radio program. Havoline Wax Free Motor Oil, developed after the acquisition of the Indiana Refining Company in 1931, followed two years later, halting its losses by 1934. In 1938 The Texas Company, still nicknamed Texaco, introduced Texaco Sky Chief premium gasoline and also started promoting its Registered Rest Rooms program, assuring motorists that their service stations had been “Clean throughout the Country.” In 1940 Texaco began its landmark sponsorship of the brand new York Metropolitan Opera’s Saturday afternoon radio broadcasts. This program, which is still running, is the oldest affiliation between a U.S. company and an arts program.
While The Texas Company promoted its services at home, it undertook vigorous growth abroad. In the course of the thirties it started exploration and manufacturing in Colombia and Venezuela. In 1936 it joined with the usual Oil Firm of California to create the Caltex group of firms, a 50–50 enterprise within the Middle East. The Caltex group consolidated the operations of each of those firms east of the Suez Canal. Texaco additionally purchased a 50 percent interest from Customary Oil of California within the California Arabian Customary Oil Company, later renamed the Arabian American Oil Firm (Aramco). The Caltex and Aramco ventures vastly expanded Texaco’s sources of crude, and in addition enabled it to integrate its operations within the Japanese Hemisphere.
The entry of the United States into WWII introduced dramatic changes for The Texas Company. About 30 percent of its wartime manufacturing went to the war effort, primarily within the form of aviation fuels, gasoline, and petrochemicals. The company labored closely with Harold L. Ickes, federal petroleum administrator for the war effort, who organized the nation’s oil firms into several nonprofit operations. The Texas Pipe Line Company, a subsidiary, oversaw the completion of two federally sponsored pipelines from Texas to the East Coast.
Texaco also joined Battle Emergency Tankers Inc., which operated a collective tanker fleet for the Battle Transport Administration. Another such venture was The Neches Butane Products Firm, which manufactured butadiene, a vital ingredient in artificial rubber. This enterprise gave Texaco its begin within the infant petrochemicals industry, and after the conflict it purchased a 25 % interest from the Federal Authorities within the Neches Butane plant. Texaco acquired full possession of this operation in 1980. The company furthered its pursuits in petrochemicals in 1944 when it formed the Jefferson Chemical Company with the American Cyanamid Firm. Texaco later bought out American Cyanamid’s interest on this venture after which merged it with its newly formed Texaco Chemical Firm in 1980.
With the tip of WWII, Texaco faced renewed customer demand at residence. U.S. consumption of oil exceeded its manufacturing for the first time in 1947, and Texaco reacted by tapping new foreign sources for its crude oil. In 1945 Texaco’s jointly owned Caltex corporations increased their refining capacity on Bahrain, reaching 180,000 barrels per day by 1951. Texaco also formed the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line Firm with three other oil firms to construct a pipeline connecting Saudi Arabia’s oil fields with the japanese Mediterranean. At home, Texaco elevated its refining capability with the Eagle Point Works near Camden, New Jersey. It also launched a number of new automotive merchandise, including Texaco Anti-Freeze and Texamatic Fluid for automated transmissions.
During the 1950s and 1960s Texaco focused on increasing its world refining and advertising and marketing operations. The acquisition of the Trinidad Oil Company in 1956 and the Seaboard Oil Company in 1958, each of which held confirmed reserves in South America, expanded its interests within the Western Hemisphere. To extend its production within the Amazon Basin, the company built a jointly owned trans-Andean pipeline in 1969 and a trans-Ecuadorian pipeline in 1972. To extend its manufacturing in Europe, furthermore, Texaco purchased the majority curiosity in the West German oil firm Deutsch Erdol A.G. in 1966. It also reorganized the Caltex group in 1967, taking over one-half of the group’s interest in 12 European nations that it had been serving from Saudi Arabia. This transfer allowed the company to develop its marketing operations in Europe, whereas leaving the Caltex companies free to concentrate east of the Suez Canal, where they enjoyed their biggest market penetration. Texaco introduced its petrochemical enterprise to Europe in 1966 with a plant in Ghent, Belgium, and to Japan three years later.
In the United States, Texaco expanded its interests by buying regional corporations and growing its refining capacity. The company strengthened its position on the East Coast by buying the Paragon group of companies in 1959 and the White Fuel Corporation in 1962. In 1962 it additionally acquired mineral rights to two million undeveloped acres in west Texas from the TXL Oil Company. The company’s petrochemical manufacturing grew quickly throughout this interval, with the addition of a brand new unit on the Eagle Point works in 1960 and one of many world’s largest benzene plants in Port Arthur in 1961. Texaco’s working volumes doubled between 1960 and 1970, with gross production surpassing three billion barrels per day in 1970.
Texaco’s great development came to an abrupt halt within the 1970s. The Arab-Israeli Struggle, the OPEC embargo, and the nationalization of international oil assets in lots of overseas nations minimize Texaco’s profit margins and endangered its sources of crude. Furthermore, federal worth controls and mandatory allocation rules restricted Texaco’s potential to lift costs or withdraw from unprofitable markets. Its web income dropped from $1.6 billion in 1974 to $830.6 million a year later and remained at that degree for the remainder of the decade.
Tensions in the Middle East prompted a wave of nationalizations in the oil business. In 1972 Saudi Arabia started to nationalize the property of Aramco, during which Texaco owned a 50 % curiosity, and took over all of its operations in 1980. Between 1973 and 1974 Libya nationalized the Texas Overseas Petroleum Company, a Texaco subsidiary. The decade ended with the Iranian revolution displacing Texaco’s pursuits there and the Caltex group selling off a part of its operations to the Bahrain government.
Texaco increased its exploration efforts and reorganized its marketing operations at home. Drilling activities elevated each onshore and offshore in the southwest, as well as in new areas such as the North Sea and jap Atlantic. The company also modernized its refineries in order to maximize the yield from every barrel of crude. Texaco made its most dramatic alterations in its retail community, abandoning the 50-state plan that had made it the United States’s largest vendor of oil. It started to withdraw from unprofitable markets, cutting operations in all or parts of 19 states in the Rocky Mountain, Midwest, and Great Lakes regions. It also lowered its number of service stations and opened more fashionable retailers in high-quantity areas.
The 1980s started with the U.S. financial system nonetheless suffering from recession, however the deregulation of the oil trade offered Texaco new flexibility in attempting to recoup its fortunes. Underneath the direction of its new chairman, John K. McKinley, Texaco undertook a major restructuring plan in 1980. It decentralized its operations into three main geographic oil and fuel divisions representing the United States, Europe and Latin America, and West Africa, in addition to one worldwide chemical group referred to as the Texaco Chemical Company. The company expanded its exploration program and it also committed extra assets to tasks for developing various fuels, comparable to coal gasification and shale oil.
Retrenchment in its refining and marketing operations continued with the closing of six inefficient refineries by 1982 and the reduction of its retail shops from 35,500 in 1974 to 27,000 in 1980. Texaco launched a new logo in 1981, a pink “T” inside a white star and crimson circle, to promote its high-quantity System 2000 stations. These stations were a fast success, with greater than 1,200 within the United States by 1987. The corporate additionally added a brand new operating division in 1982, Texaco Center East/Far East, and made several essential acquisitions to bolster its reserve base. By 1985 Texaco’s web revenue was as soon as once more above $1 billion.
In the midst of this comeback, Texaco grew to become concerned in a authorized battle. The 1984 buy of the Getty Oil Firm had promised to speed Texaco’s restoration by including an estimated 1.9 billion barrels of confirmed reserves to its assets. Pennzoil Company filed swimsuit, nonetheless, claiming that Texaco had interfered with its plans to amass three-sevenths of Getty’s shares. Within the ensuing courtroom case, a Texas State District Court docket in Houston ordered Texaco to pay Pennzoil $10.5 billion in damages. Arguing that vital New York and Delaware state laws had been ignored within the case, Texaco obtained an injunction from a federal court in New York that briefly halted the fee of damages while it appealed the decision.
In February 1987 the Texas Courtroom of Appeals upheld the decision. In order to guard its property whereas persevering with its appeals, the company filed for protection beneath Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. Texaco spent most of 1987 in Chapter eleven whereas continuing its litigation. In consequence, it incurred its first working losses since the great Depression, ending the year $four.Four billion in the purple. After the Texas Supreme Court docket refused to listen to an attraction, New York financier Carl Icahn began buying Texaco’s quickly depreciating inventory in an attempt to force it to settle with Pennzoil. A couple of weeks later Texaco agreed to pay Pennzoil $3 billion slightly than appeal the choice to the Supreme Court, permitting it to start planning for its emergence from Chapter eleven.
However, Icahn continued to buy the company’s stock, and in early 1988 he started a takeover bid. Texaco’s board of directors had submitted a restructuring plan to the shareholders for assembly the company’s debt obligations. Icahn favored, instead, the sale of the corporate. He launched the largest proxy battle in business historical past when he tried to achieve control of five seats on the board of directors, however he was finally defeated in a June 1988 shareholders’ election. The board of directors then agreed to buy out Icahn’s interest in Texaco.
With the Pennzoil case and the takeover try behind it, Texaco rebuilt its market position underneath the leadership of chairman and CEO James Kinnear by promoting off belongings and enterprise new joint ventures. From 1987 to 1989 it bought its operations in Germany and Canada, as well as mounted property in the United States (together with 2,500 fuel stations) and the Middle East, raising $7 billion in the process. It additionally expanded drilling operations in the North Sea and offshore California, whereas persevering with its exploration efforts in Asia, Africa, and South America.
In 1988 Texaco U.S.A. transferred approximately two-thirds of its refining and marketing operations to Star Enterprise, a joint enterprise established with Saudi Arabia’s Aramco. Different moves have included the acquisition of Chevron’s advertising and marketing operations in six European nations and the corporate’s first industrial utility of its coal gasification expertise in an electric plant within the Los Angeles basin.
The recession of 1991–92 depressed demand for petroleum products and forced prices decrease. Because of this, Texaco’s revenue dropped from $forty.Fifty one billion in 1990 to $37.16 billion in 1991 to $36.53 billion in 1992, while internet income fell from $1.41 billion in 1990 to $1.29 billion in 1991 to $1.04 billion in 1992. By 1993, internet income had improved to $1.07 billion, however income continued to fall, dropping to $34.07 billion. That same yr Kinnear retired and was succeeded by Alfred C. DeCrane Jr.
Beginning in 1993, DeCrane guided Texaco by way of yet one more restructuring intended to enhance its competitiveness. Like virtually every other U.S. oil firm going through restructuring at the time, Texaco reduced its work force. A cut of 2,500 staff, or eight percent, over a one-year period contributed to a $200 million reduction in overhead in 1994. DeCrane additionally wished Texaco to concentrate on its core oil and gasoline operations, so he divested the corporate of its chemical business. In 1994 Texaco bought the Texaco Chemical Company to the Huntsman Corporation for $850 million. That 12 months the company also sold greater than 300 scattered, unprofitable oil- and gasoline-producing properties to Apache Corporation for $600 million.
With the funds generated by way of these moves, Texaco could now increase its funds for overseas exploration and manufacturing. Seeking to extend production by 125,000 barrels a day by the tip of the decade, Texaco began to pursue alternatives in Russia, China, and Colombia. In order to minimize its exposure in such risky areas of operation as Russia, Texaco, like other oil corporations, turned to joint ventures with its rivals. For instance, Texaco formed the Timan Pechora Company L.L.C. with Exxon, Amoco, and Norsk Hydro to negotiate a production-sharing settlement with Russia for the Timan Pechora Basin, which may hold greater than two billion barrels of oil.
The a lot leaner Texaco of the mid-nineties had but to return to its former prominence, however was in better shape than in many years. One positive signal was Texaco’s reentry into the Canadian market in 1995 with its $30 million reacquisition of Texaco Canada Petroleum Inc. With the company dedicated to rising its capital spending overseas from forty five p.c of whole capital spending to 55 % by 1998, Texaco appeared determined to get its share of the oil obtainable exterior the United States. Whether or not that can be enough for Texaco to recapture its past glory in a decade of heated competition remained to be seen.
Principal Subsidiaries: Caltex Petroleum Corp. (50%); 4 Star Oil & Gas Co.; Saudi Arabian Texaco Inc.; Star Enterprise (50%); TEPI Holdings Inc.; Texaco Cogeneration Co.; Texaco Exploration & Production Inc.; Texaco Worldwide Trader Inc.; Texaco Overseas Holdings Inc.; Texaco Pipeline Co.; Texaco Refining & Advertising and marketing Inc.; Texaco Trading & Transportation Inc.; TRMI Holdings Inc.; Texaco Brasil S.A. Produtos de Petroleo; Texaco Canada Petroleum Inc.; Texaco Denmark Inc.; Texaco Investments (Netherlands), Inc.; Texaco Overseas (Nigeria) Petroleum Co.; Texaco Panama Inc.; Texaco Britain Restricted (U.Okay.); Texaco Restricted (U.Ok.); Texaco North Sea U.K. Co.