1. In reality there is no chemical changes. The crude oil has lots of impurities (gas components & water vapor). This crude oil is very viscous say it is like “automobile grease”. To make it viscous, steam is used or some electrical “tracing” cable is used to heat the piping.
  2. In the crude distillation, the steam enters at Bottom & moves UP while crude oil enters from top & moves downwards. Heat exchange takes place between crude & steam, crude moves along the extended surfaces of “bubble cap trays” and there are many trays say 35–40 trays. Along this, the heavier crudes is separated at bottom & lighter crudes at the top.

3. The same process continues as the crude is furthe processed in different types of distillation columns to get kerosene, petrol, diesel, aviation fuel (aviation fuel processing hs some properitary catalyst which has gold & platinum as its one of the contents).

4. So it is “oil” undergoing “phase” change at various levels… there is no chemical change. The entire oil processing is “phase change” only, something like a mood changes in a person !! (but the person does not undergo chemical change nor his physical body changes !!!)

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