1. Raw materials: crude oil, etc.
  1. Products: naphtha, gas oil (gas oil), residual oil, asphalt, minus one line.
  1. Basic concepts

Atmospheric and vacuum distillation is a combination of atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation. It is basically a physical process: the feedstock oil is divided into oils with different boiling points (called fractions) according to the evaporation capacity in the distillation tower. Some of these oils are blended. After adding the additive, it is delivered in the form of a product, and a considerable part is the raw material of the subsequent processing device.

Atmospheric and vacuum distillation is the first process of petroleum processing in refinery. It is called primary processing of crude oil and includes three processes: a. desalting and dehydration of crude oil; b. atmospheric distillation; c. vacuum distillation.

  1. Production process

Crude oil generally has salt and water, which can cause corrosion of equipment. Therefore, crude oil is first subjected to desalting and dehydration pretreatment before entering atmospheric and vacuum, usually by adding demulsifier and water.

Crude oil is formed into two parts through a flow meter, a heat exchange part, and a distillation tower. A part of the oil forms a top oil, passes through a cooler, a flow meter, and finally enters the tank area. This part is a chemical light oil (so-called naphtha); Forming the bottom oil, and then passing through the heat exchange part, entering the atmospheric pressure furnace and the atmospheric pressure tower to form three parts, a part of diesel oil, a part of wax oil, and a part of bottom oil; the remaining bottom oil is passed through a vacuum furnace, a vacuum tower Further processing, generating a minus line, wax oil, residual oil and asphalt.

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The respective yields: naphtha (light gasoline or chemical light oil) accounted for about 1%, diesel accounted for about 20%, wax oil accounted for about 30%, residual oil and asphalt accounted for about 42%, and reduced one line accounted for about 5%. about.

The atmospheric and vacuum distillation process does not produce gasoline products, in which wax oil and residual oil enter the catalytic cracking process to produce refined oil such as gasoline, diesel oil and kerosene; naphtha is directly sold by other small enterprises to produce solvent oil or further processing into the next step. Generally, the catalyst oil is produced by catalytic reforming or the extracted compound is extracted; the first line can be directly adjusted to the lubricating oil.

  1. Production equipment

The atmospheric and vacuum distillation device is a distillation device for processing crude oil once, that is, the crude oil is fractionated into a processing device for components such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, wax oil, and residual oil. Crude oil distillation generally includes two parts of atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation.

  1. Atmospheric distillation tower

The atmospheric distillation of crude oil is the distillation of crude oil at normal pressure (or slightly higher than normal pressure). The distillation equipment used is called crude oil atmospheric distillation column (or atmospheric pressure column).

The heavy oil component remaining under atmospheric distillation has a large molecular weight, a high boiling point, and is easily decomposed at a high temperature, which deteriorates the distilled product and produces coke, which destroys normal production. Therefore, in order to extract more light components, the boiling point range of the distilled feedstock oil is often lowered by lowering the distillation pressure. This distillation process under reduced pressure is called vacuum distillation.

  1. Vacuum distillation tower

The vacuum distillation is a distillation process carried out under a negative pressure of less than 100 KPa. The core equipment for vacuum distillation is a vacuum tower and its vacuum system. More oil information oil information oil transfer technology, please pay attention to WeChat public number oil circle.


The vacuum pumping equipment of the vacuum tower is usually a steam injector (also called a steam suction pump) or a mechanical vacuum pump. Among them, the mechanical vacuum pump is only used in some dry vacuum distillation towers and vacuum towers of small refineries, and steam injectors are widely used.